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Publication Abstract Display
Type: Poster
Title: Chronic methamphetamine use and HIV infection are associated with alterations in regional brain volumes and cortical thickness.
Authors: Gongvatana W, Bischoff-Grethe A, Morgan EE, Archibald S, Fennema-Notestine C, Woods SP, Brown G, Grant I, and the TMARC Group
Date: 02-12-2014
Abstract:Methamphetamine (MA) use is a major risk factor for HIV transmission and an important contributor to neural injury in HIV-infected people. Research regarding their independent and combined effects has been mixed. This study examined the impact of MA use characteristics and HIV infection on structural brain alterations. We examined 13 HIV+ and 18 HIV- individuals with MA use history using high resolution T1 MRI. Volumes of cortical areas, subcortical nuclei, white matter, and ventricles, in addition to regional cortical thickness measures were derived using Freesurfer automated segmentation. A multiple linear regression model was fitted with age, HIV serostatus, MA dependence status, average amount of use per occasion, period of abstinence, age of first use, and intracranial volume as predictors of each structural brain measure. A model selection algorithm based on AIC was used to maximize model parsimony. Older age and HIV seropositivity were associated with widespread reduction in brain volume and cortical thickness, and increased ventricular volume. Higher average amount of use was associated with reduced total cortical volume, and cortical thinning in areas spanning the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. MA dependence was associated with reduced volumes of the nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus, and thinning of the precentral gyrus. Longer abstinence was associated with lower globus pallidus volume, and higher thickness in the caudal middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri. Younger age of first use was associated with higher nucleus accumbens volume, and higher cortical thickness primarily in frontal lobe areas. Independent of the effects of age and HIV serostatus, more recent and heavier MA use and current MA dependence were generally associated with cortical and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Surprisingly, younger age of first MA use was associated with increased frontal cortical thickness, possibly related to alteration in neurodevelopmental trajectory.

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