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Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Relationship of the balloon analog risk task to neurocognitive impairment differs by HIV serostatus and history of major depressive disorder.
Authors: Saloner R, Morgan EE, Hussain MA, Moore D, Heaton RK, Cherner M, Grant I, Iudicello JE
Year: 2022
Publication: Journal of Neurovirology
Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 248-264
Abstract:HIV and major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly co-occur and are both linked to greater risk-taking behavior, possibly due to neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined the concordance of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a gold standard measure of risk-taking propensity, with NCI and real-world sexual risk behaviors in PWH with comorbid MDD. Participants included 259 adults, stratified by HIV serostatus (HIV + /HIV -) and lifetime MDD (MDD + /MDD -), who completed neuropsychological testing, the BART, and sexual risk behavior questionnaires. Logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined joint effects of MDD and BART (linear and quadratic) on NCI. Follow-up linear regressions examined sexual risk behavior and neurocognitive domain T-scores as correlates of the BART. NCI prevalence was lowest in HIV - /MDD - , but BART scores did not differ by HIV/MDD status. In the HIV + group, BART performance predicted NCI such that high and low BART scores related to greater odds of NCI, but only in dual-risk HIV + /MDD + individuals. HIV + /MDD + individuals with both low and high BART scores exhibited poorer learning and recall, whereas processing speed and executive function were only poor in low BART risk-taking HIV + /MDD + . Higher BART scores linearly related to higher sexual risk behaviors only in MDD + individuals, independent of HIV serostatus. Low and high risk-taking on the BART may reflect discrete neurocognitive profiles in HIV + /MDD + individuals, with differential implications for real-world sexual risk behavior. HIV and comorbid MDD may disturb corticostriatal circuits responsible for integrating affective and neurocognitive components of decision-making, thereby contributing to risk-averse and risk-taking phenotypes.

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