Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Persistence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, inflammation and neuronal injury in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment.
Authors: Harezlak J, Buchthal S, Taylor M, Schifitto G, Zhong J, Daar ES, Alger J, Singer E, Campbell T, Yiannoutsos C, Cohen R, Navia BA and the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium
Year: 2011
Publication: AIDS
Volume: 25 Issue: Pages: 625-633
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of HAART. DESIGN: This study is an observational cohort study. METHODS: MRS was performed in 268 patients: HIV-negative controls (N = 28), HIV-positive neuroasymptomatic individuals (N = 124), and individuals with AIDS dementia complex (ADC; N = 50) on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a mean duration of infection of 12 years and CD4 cell count of 309 cells/μl. Four metabolites were measured over creatine: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), marker of neuronal integrity; choline (Cho), myoinositol, markers of inflammation, and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) in the basal ganglia, frontal white matter (FWM), and mid-frontal cortex. Analyses included analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, linear, and nonparametric regression models. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was found in 48% of HIV-infected individuals. Both HIV-positive groups showed significant increases in myoinositol/creatine or Cho/creatine in all brain regions when compared to controls; a significant decrease in Glx/creatine in the FWM was observed in the neuroasymptomatic group; and only individuals with ADC showed a significant reduction in NAA/creatine, although a significant trend for decreasing NAA/creatine in the basal ganglia was found across the groups. Effects related to aging and duration of infection, but not central nervous system penetration effectiveness were observed. CONCLUSION: Brain inflammatory changes remain ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, whereas neuronal injury occurs predominantly in those with cognitive impairment. Together these findings indicate that despite the widespread use of HAART, HIV-associated cognitive impairment and brain injury persist in the setting of chronic and stable disease.

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