Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Sex differences in neuropsychological performance as an effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A pilot study in Zambia, Africa.
Authors: Hestad KA, Menon J A, Silalukey-Ngoma M, Franklin DR, Imasiku ML, Kalima K, Heaton RK
Year: 2012
Publication: The Journal of Nervous And Mental Disease
Volume: 200 Issue: 4 Pages: 336-342
Abstract:ABSTRACT: This study examined whether there are neuropsychological performance differences between human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive participants being followed at a University of Zambia clinic and demographically comparable seronegative controls being tested for infection in the same setting. All participants were administered a standardized neurocognitive test battery that has been found sensitive to HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder in the United States and internationally (e.g., in China, India, Romania, and Cameroon). The test battery was found to be applicable to a Zambian population. A clear HIV effect was seen with a medium to large overall effect size (Cohen d = 0.74). However, it was only the female seropositive participants who showed this HIV effect. HIV can result in neuropsychological deficits in Zambia, where clade C of the virus dominates. It is suggested that the HIV-infected women are more at risk of developing cognitive deficits than are men in this population, possibly because of sex-related social, financial, and healthcare disadvantages. However, further analyses are required regarding this conclusion because the finding was a result of an unplanned subanalysis.

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