Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: A concise panel of biomarkers identifies neurocognitive functioning changes in HIV-infected individuals.
Authors: Marcotte TD, Deutsch R, Michael BD, Franklin D, Cookson Rosario D, Bharti A, Grant I, Letendre SL
Year: 2013
Publication: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : The Official Journal of The Society On NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Volume: 8 Issue: 5 Pages: 1123-1135
Abstract:Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) occurs commonly in people living with HIV. Despite substantial effort, no biomarkers have been sufficiently validated for diagnosis and prognosis of NCI in the clinic. The goal of this project was to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for NCI in a comprehensively characterized HIV cohort. Multidisciplinary case review selected 98 HIV-infected individuals and categorized them into four NC groups using normative data: stably normal (SN), stably impaired (SI), worsening (Wo), or improving (Im). All subjects underwent comprehensive NC testing, phlebotomy, and lumbar puncture at two timepoints separated by a median of 6.2 months. Eight biomarkers were measured in CSF and blood by immunoassay. Results were analyzed using mixed model linear regression and staged recursive partitioning. At the first visit, subjects were mostly middle-aged (median 45) white (58 %) men (84 %) who had AIDS (70 %). Of the 73 % who took antiretroviral therapy (ART), 54 % had HIV RNA levels below 50 c/mL in plasma. Mixed model linear regression identified that only MCP-1 in CSF was associated with neurocognitive change group. Recursive partitioning models aimed at diagnosis (i.e., correctly classifying neurocognitive status at the first visit) were complex and required most biomarkers to achieve misclassification limits. In contrast, prognostic models were more efficient. A combination of three biomarkers (sCD14, MCP-1, SDF-1α) correctly classified 82 % of Wo and SN subjects, including 88 % of SN subjects. A combination of two biomarkers (MCP-1, TNF-α) correctly classified 81 % of Im and SI subjects, including 100 % of SI subjects. This analysis of well-characterized individuals identified concise panels of biomarkers associated with NC change. Across all analyses, the two most frequently identified biomarkers were sCD14 and MCP-1, indicators of monocyte/macrophage activation. While the panels differed depending on the outcome and on the degree of misclassification, nearly all stable patients were correctly classified.

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