Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Standard vaccines increase HIV-1 transcription during antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Yek C
Year: 2016
Publication: AIDS (London, England)
Volume: 30 Issue: 15 Pages: 2289-2298
Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Curative strategies using agents to perturb the HIV reservoir have demonstrated only modest activity, whereas increases in viremia after standard vaccination have been described. We investigated whether vaccination against non-HIV pathogens can induce HIV transcription and thereby play a role in future eradication strategies. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial (NCT00329251) was performed to compare the effects of clinical vaccines to placebo on HIV transcription and immune activation. METHODS: Twenty-six HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART were randomized to receive a vaccination schedule (n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Cell-associated RNA (ca-RNA) and DNA were extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV was quantified by droplet digital PCR using primers for gag and 2-LTR (for HIV DNA), unspliced gag RNA (gag usRNA), multispliced tat-rev RNA (tat-rev msRNA) and polyA mRNA. RESULTS: Significant increases in gag usRNA after influenza/hepatitis B vaccination (p = 0.02) and in gag usRNA (p = 0.04) and polyA mRNA (p = 0.04) after pneumococcus/hepatitis B vaccination were seen in vaccinees but not controls. HIV DNA and plasma HIV RNA did not change in either group. Increases in CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation markers (p = 0.08 and p < 0.001, respectively), and HIV-specific CD8 responses (p = 0.04 for p24 gag, p = 0.01 for p17 gag and p = 0.04 for total gag) were seen in vaccinees but not controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, vaccination was associated with increases in HIV ca-RNA and HIV-specific responses during ART. Using standard vaccines to stimulate HIV transcription may therefore be a useful component of future eradication strategies.

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