Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Diffusion basis spectral imaging detects ongoing brain inflammation in virologically well controlled HIV+ patients.
Authors: Strain J, Burdo T, Song S, Sun P, El-Ghazzawy, Nelson B, Westerhaus E, Baker L, Vaida F, Ances B
Year: 2017
Publication: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
Volume: 76 Issue: 4 Pages: 423-430
Abstract:Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity. Ninety-two virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on HAART and 66 HIV uninfected (HIV-) controls underwent neuropsychological performance (NP) testing and neuroimaging. NP tests assessed multiple domains (memory, psychomotor speed, and executive functioning). DTI and DBSI derived fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were processed with tract based spatial statistics for comparison between both groups. Cellularity was assessed with regards to age, HIV status, and NP. Within the HIV+ cohort, cellularity was compared to clinical (HAART duration) and laboratory measures of disease (e.g. CD4 cell current and nadir). NP was similar for both groups. DTI derived FA was lower in HIV+ compared to HIV- individuals. In contrast, DBSI derived FA was similar for both groups. Instead, diffuse increases in cellularity were present in HIV+ individuals. Observed changes in cellularity were significantly associated with age, but not NP, in HIV+ individuals. A trend level association was seen between cellularity and HAART duration. Elevated inflammation, measured by cellularity, persists in virologically well-controlled HIV+ individuals. Widespread cellularity changes occur in younger HIV+ individuals and diminish with aging and duration of HAART.

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