Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Mitochondrial biogenesis is altered in HIV+ brains exposed to ART: Implications for therapeutic targeting of astroglia.
Authors: Swinton Mary K, Carson A, Telese F, Sanchez AB, Soontornniyomkij B, Rad L, Batki I, Quintanilla B, Perez-Santiago J, Achim CL, Letendre S, Ellis RJ, Grant I, Murphy AN, Fields JA
Year: 2019
Publication: Neurobiology of Disease
Volume: 130 Issue: Pages: 104502
Abstract:The neuropathogenesis of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) involves disruption of in mitochondrial homeostasis and increased neuroinflammation. However, it is unknown if alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain underlie the neuropathogenesis of HAND. In this study, neuropathological and molecular analyses of mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammatory pathways were performed in brain specimens from a well-characterized cohort of HIV+ cases that were on antiretroviral regimens. In vitro investigations using primary human astroglia and neurons were used to probe the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial alterations. In frontal cortices from HAND brains compared to cognitive normal brains, total levels of transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Y coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1-alpha) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM) were decreased. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that TFAM was decreased in neurons and increased in astroglia. These changes were accompanied by decreased total mitochondrial DNA per cell and increased levels of messenger RNA for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1-beta. To determine how IL-1-beta affects astroglial bioenergetic processes and mitochondrial activity, human astroglial cultures were exposed to recombinant IL-1-beta. IL-1-beta induced mitochondrial activity within 30 min of treatment, altered mitochondrial related gene expression, altered mitochondrial morphology, enhanced ATP utilization and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines. WIN55,212-2, an aminoalkylindole derivative and cannabinoid receptor agonist, blocked IL-1-beta-induced bioenergetic fluctuations and inflammatory gene expression in astroglia independent of CB1 receptors and PPAR-alpha. A PPAR-alpha antagonist reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of WIN in human astroglia. These results show that mitochondrial biogenesis is differentially regulated in neurons and astroglia in HAND brains and that targeting astroglial bioenergetic processes may be a strategy to modulate neuroinflammation.

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