Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Neurocognitive impairment in Spanish-speaking Latinos living with HIV in the US: Application of the neuropsychological norms for the US-Mexico border region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS).
Authors: Kamalyan L, Hussain MA, Diaz MM, Umlauf A, Franklin DR, Cherner M, Rivera MM, Artiola I Fortuny L, Grant I, Heaton RK, Marquine MJ
Year: 2021
Publication: The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 433-452
Abstract:Objective: Latinos in the US are at increased risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Most studies of US Latinos living with HIV have included primarily English-speakers only. We investigated the rate, pattern, and correlates of HIV-associated NCI in native Spanish-speaking Latinos living in the US near the Mexican border.Methods: Participants included 407 native Spanish-speaking Latinos (Age: M = 37.65, SD = 10.0; Education: M = 10.75, SD = 4.1; 53% male): 153 persons living with HIV (PLWH; 56% AIDS) and 254 healthy controls. All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in Spanish. Raw neuropsychological test scores from seven domains were converted to demographically-adjusted T-scores using norms developed with healthy controls. Global and domain NCI were defined per established criteria. Among PLWH we applied norms developed for non-Hispanic (NH) Whites and Blacks, and investigated correlates of global NCI, including HIV disease characteristics and psychiatric comorbidities.Results: Utilizing population specific norms, rates of global NCI were significantly higher among PLWH (39%) than healthy controls (17%), comparable to previously published rates. In contrast, rates of global NCI in the same group of PLWH were significantly different when NH White norms (63%, p < 0.0001) and NH Black norms were used (18%, p < 0.0001). Among PLWH without a history of lifetime substance use disorder, more years of antiretroviral exposure were significantly associated with decreased rates of global NCI.Conclusions: Present findings lend support to the validity of newly developed norms for native Spanish-speakers living near the US-Mexico border, and underscore the importance of utilizing appropriate norms to accurately identify HIV-associated NCI.

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