Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Demographically adjusted normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64 Item: Results from the Neuropsychological Norms for The U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project.
Authors: Marquine MJ, Yassai-Gonzalez D, Perez-Tejada A, Umlauf A, Kamalyan L, Morlett Paredes A, Suarez P, Rivera MM, Franklin D, Artiola I Fortuny L, Cherner M, Heaton RK
Year: 2021
Publication: The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 339-355
Abstract:Objective: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is among the most commonly used tests of executive functioning. We aimed to generate normative data on the 64-item version of this test (WCST-64) for Spanish-speakers living in the U.S.-Mexico Border region.Methods: Participants included 189 native Spanish-speakers (Age: 19-60; Education: 0-20; 59.3% female) from the Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) project who completed the WCST-64. Univariable and interactive associations between demographic variables and raw scores were examined via Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon Rank-sum tests and linear regressions. T-scores for various WCST-64 measures (Total Errors, Perseverative Responses, Perseverative Errors, Conceptual Level Responses and Number of Categories) were obtained using fractional polynomial equations with weights for age, education, and gender. Percentile scores were reported for Failures to Maintain Set. Rates of impairment (T-score < 40) were calculated by applying the newly developed norms and published norms for non-Hispanic English-speaking Whites and Blacks.Results: Older age was associated with worse performance and education was linked to better performance on most WCST-64 raw scores, with stronger education effects among females than males. The norms developed here resulted in expected rates of impairment (14-16% across measures). Applying published norms for non-Hispanic Blacks resulted in generally comparable impairment rates. In contrast, applying previously published norms for non-Hispanic Whites overestimated impairment (38-52% across measures).Conclusions: These data will enhance interpretation performance on the WCST-64 for Spanish-speakers living in the U.S.-Mexico Border region. Future work will need to examine the generalizability of these norms to other Hispanic/Latino groups.

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