Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Demographically adjusted normative data for the Halstead Category Test in a Spanish-speaking adult population: Results from the Neuropsychological Norms for the U.S.-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS).
Authors: Morlett Paredes A, Carrasco J, Kamalyan L, Cherner M, Umlauf A, Rivera MM, Suarez P, Artiola I Fortuny L, Franklin D, Heaton RK, Marquine MJ
Year: 2021
Publication: The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 356-373
Abstract:Objective: The present study aimed to develop norms applicable to Spanish-speakers living in the United States (U.S.)- Mexico border region for the Halstead Category Test (HCT), a test of executive function.Methods: Healthy native Spanish-speakers (N = 252; Age: range 19-60 years, M = 37.28, SD = 10.24; Education: range 0-20 years; M = 10.65, SD = 4.33; 58.33% women) living in the U.S.-Mexico border region of California and Arizona completed the HCT as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The univariable and interactive effects of demographic variables on HCT raw scores were examined. Total scores were normed using fractional polynomial equations, controlling for age, education, and gender. T-scores were also computed for HCT scores of the current Spanish-speaking normative sample using published, demographically-adjusted norms for English-speaking non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks. Impairment rates (T-Scores < 40) were calculated using published and current norms.Results: Age was significantly associated with increased number of errors, and education and male gender were associated with decreased number of HCT errors (total raw scores). Applying norms developed for English-speaking non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks resulted in overestimation of impairment rates in the current sample (impairment: 48% with White norms and 27% with Black norms). This pattern was evident across levels of education except in participants with 13+ years of education, where rates of impairment using non-Hispanic Black norms were comparable to those based on newly developed norms.Conclusion: The present study presents norms for the HCT in a sample of U.S. Spanish-speakers, providing an important tool for identifying executive dysfunction in this population.

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