Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Demographically-adjusted norms for the WAIS-R Block Design And Arithmetic subtests: Results from the neuropsychological norms for the US-Mexico Border region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project.
Authors: Scott TM, Morlett Paredes A, Taylor MJ, Umlauf A, Artiola I Fortuny L, Heaton RK, Cherner M, Marquine MJ, Rivera MM
Year: 2021
Publication: The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Pages: 419-432
Abstract:Objective: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design and Arithmetic subtests are frequently used as measures of visuospatial construction and verbal working memory, respectively. As part of a larger test adaptation and norming effort for this population, we generated and investigated demographically-adjusted interpretive norms for WAIS-R Block Design and Arithmetic in Spanish-speaking adults living in the US-Mexico border region.Method: Participants included 183 community-dwelling adults ages 20-55 (education range: 0-20 years; 58% women) from the NeuroPsychological-Norms for the US-Mexico Border Region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) Project. They completed the WAIS-R Block Design and Arithmetic subtests in Spanish. Demographically-adjusted T-scores were calculated for these subtests using fractional polynomial equations adjusting for linear and non-linear effects of age, education (continuous), and sex. We compared our rates of impairment (i.e. T < 40) against rates calculated using published English-speaking WAIS-R standardization sample norms adjusted for age, education, and sex.Results: Education was positively associated with performance on Block Design and Arithmetic subtests, and men outperformed women on both subtests. The present Spanish-speaker norms for these subtests yielded expected rates of "impairment" (i.e. 15-16% impaired, a 1 SD cutoff), while existing norms for English-speakers underestimated impairment (i.e. 5-6% impaired) when applied to our Spanish-speaking sample.Conclusions: Regional normative data will improve interpretation of test performance on Block Design and Arithmetic subtests for Spanish-speakers living in the US-Mexico border region and may aid in bolstering the overall analysis of neuropsychological profile patterns in this population. Cross-validation with Spanish-speakers in other regions and/or with other national origins is needed.

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