Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: MRP8/14 is a molecular signature triggered by dopamine in HIV latent myeloid targets that increases HIV transcription and distinguishes HIV+ methamphetamine users with detectable CSF viral load and brain pathology.
Authors: Basova LV, Lindsey A, McGovern A, Rosander A, Delorme-Walker V, ElShamy WM, Pendyala VV, Gaskill PJ, Ellis RJ, Cherner M, Iudicello JE, Marcondes MCG
Year: 2023
Publication: Viruses
Volume: 15 Issue: 6 Pages: 1363
Abstract:There is a significant overlap between HIV infection and substance-use disorders. Dopamine (DA) is the most abundantly upregulated neurotransmitter in methamphetamine abuse, with receptors (DRD1-5) that are expressed by neurons as well as by a large diversity of cell types, including innate immune cells that are the targets of HIV infection, making them responsive to the hyperdopaminergic environment that is characteristic of stimulant drugs. Therefore, the presence of high levels of dopamine may affect the pathogenesis of HIV, particularly in the brain. The stimulation of HIV latently infected U1 promonocytes with DA significantly increased viral p24 levels in the supernatant at 24 h, suggesting effects on activation and replication. Using selective agonists to different DRDs, we found that DRD1 played a major role in activating viral transcription, followed by DRD4, which increased p24 with a slower kinetic rate compared to DRD1. Transcriptome and systems biology analyses led to the identification of a cluster of genes responsive to DA, where S100A8 and S100A9 were most significantly correlated with the early increase in p24 levels following DA stimulation. Conversely, DA increased the expression of these genes' transcripts at the protein level, MRP8 and MRP14, respectively, which form a complex also known as calprotectin. Interestingly, MRP8/14 was able to stimulate HIV transcription in latent U1 cells, and this occurred via binding of the complex to the receptor for an advanced glycosylation end-product (RAGE). Using selective agonists, both DRD1 and DRD4 increased MRP8/14 on the surface, in the cytoplasm, as well as secreted in the supernatants. On the other hand, while DRD1/5 did not affect the expression of RAGE, DRD4 stimulation caused its downregulation, offering a mechanism for the delayed effect via DRD4 on the p24 increase. To cross-validate MRP8/14 as a DA signature with a biomarker value, we tested its expression in HIV+ Meth users' postmortem brain specimens and peripheral cells. MRP8/14+ cells were more frequently identified in mesolimbic areas such as the basal ganglia of HIV+ Meth+ cases compared to HIV+ non-Meth users or to controls. Likewise, MRP8/14+ CD11b+ monocytes were more frequent in HIV+ Meth users, particularly in specimens from participants with a detectable viral load in the CSF. Overall, our results suggest that the MRP8 and MRP14 complex may serve as a signature to distinguish subjects using addictive substances in the context of HIV, and that this may play a role in aggravating HIV pathology by promoting viral replication in people with HIV who use Meth.

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