Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: New-onset psychosis in HIV-infected patients.
Authors: Harris MJ, Jeste DV, Gleghorn A, Sewell DD
Contact: Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego.
Year: 1991
Publication: The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume: 52 Issue: 9 Pages: 369-76
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Psychiatric symptoms and disorders are becoming increasingly evident in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. As psychotic symptoms may be severe and require immediate behavioral management, the authors sought to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of new-onset psychosis not obviously attributable to substance abuse or delirium in these patients. METHOD: The authors reviewed the English-language literature since 1981 by means of the Index Medicus and MEDLINE for reports of new-onset psychosis in HIV-infected patients and also examined the charts of 124 HIV-infected patients who had been followed up at the San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center since 1984. Cases of substance-induced psychosis and delirium were excluded. RESULTS: Results reflect a combination of cases from the authors' study and cases of new-onset HIV-associated psychosis reported in the literature (N = 31). Results of the initial neurologic evaluation, including computed tomography (CT) scan and examination of the CSF, were normal in a majority of patients (CT = 12 of 23 patients; CSF = 10 of 14 patients). Psychotic symptoms improved with neuroleptic treatment although side effects were frequently seen. In some patients (N = 12) psychosis was the presenting manifestation of HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A proportion of patients (N = 7 [23%]), especially those with an abnormal CT and EEG at the time of presentation with psychosis, tended to have a relatively rapid deterioration in cognitive and medical status. Differences between studies in population and method made it impossible to determine the frequency of new-onset psychosis in the general HIV-infected population. CONCLUSIONS: A common clinical feature noted in new-onset psychosis in HIV-infected patients was acute or subacute onset of symptoms, which included delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, mood or affective disturbances, and mild memory or cognitive impairment. The etiological association of the HIV infection to the psychosis is yet to be established.
Funding: NIMH:MH MH45294
Keywords: AIDS Dementia Complex, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Delirium, Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders, Electroencephalography, HIV Seropositivity, Hallucinations, Humans, Neurologic Examination, Neuropsychological Tests, Research Support, U.S. Gov''t, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov''t, P.H.S., Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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