Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: In vivo compartmentalization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus: evidence from the examination of pol sequences from autopsy tissues.
Authors: Wong JK, Ignacio CC, Torriani F, Havlir D, Fitch NJ. Richman DD
Contact: Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093-0679, USA.
Year: 1997
Publication: Journal of Virology
Volume: 71 Issue: 3 Pages: 2059-71
Abstract:High rates of mutation and replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) allow for the continuous generation of diverse genetic variants in vivo. Selective pressures within the microenvironments of different anatomic compartments result in the emergence of dominant quasispecies which can be distinguished by their envelope sequences. It is not known whether comparable tissue-specific selective pressures lead to the independent evolution of pol sequences within different tissue compartments, nor is it known how differing rates of virus turnover in tissues might affect the pace of such evolution. These issues are of importance for the formulation of a model for the emergence of drug resistance in vivo and for a general understanding of virus trafficking and virus turnover. Regions of the HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) which carry the majority of the known resistance codons to RT inhibitors (700 nucleotides from each clone) were cloned and sequenced directly from autopsied brain, spleen, and lymph node specimens from four subjects who had received zidovudine therapy. Clones from proviral DNA (143) and from viral cDNA (14) were analyzed. In three of four subjects, a discordance in distribution of resistance codons was noted. Moreover, brain-derived sequences appeared to be phylogenetically distinct from spleen- and lymph node-derived sequences even after exclusion of resistance codons from analysis. In each case, evidence for differential immune selective pressure, based on comparison of inferred amino acid sequences corresponding to known major histocompatibility complex class I cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes, was found. These observations support the concept of anatomically distinct, independently evolving quasispecies (virodemes).
Funding: NIAID:AI AI01361, NIAID:AI AI07384, NIAID:AI AI27670
Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Brain, DNA, Viral, Drug Resistance, Microbial, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, HIV-1, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase, Humans, Lymph Nodes, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid, Spleen, T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic, Zidovudine

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