Publication Abstract Display
Type: Published Manuscript
Title: Increased Human Immunodeficiency Virus loads in active methamphetamine users are explained by reduced effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Ellis RJ, Childers ME, Cherner M, Lazzaretto D, Letendre S, Grant I, and the HNRC Group
Contact: Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.
Year: 2003
Publication: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume: 188 Issue: 12 Pages: 1820-6
Abstract:Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a frequent comorbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. In cell cultures and animal models, METH accelerates retroviral replication. To determine whether METH increases HIV replication in humans, we evaluated HIV loads in HIV-positive METH users and nonusers. We studied 3 groups: Tox+, active METH use and positive urine toxicology results; METH(+)Tox-, previous METH dependence/abuse and negative urine toxicology results; METH(-)Tox-, no METH dependence/abuse and negative urine toxicology results. Tox+ subjects` plasma virus loads were significantly higher than METH(+)Tox- and METH(-)Tox- subjects`; cerebrospinal fluid virus loads showed a similar but nonsignificant trend. Stratification by use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) revealed that virus loads were higher only in those Tox+ subjects who reported receiving HAART. In contrast, abstinent former METH abusers (METH(+)Tox-) receiving HAART effectively suppressed viral replication. These data suggest that abstinence programs are a key component of effective treatment of HIV in METH-abusing populations.
Funding: NIDA:DA P01 DA12065-04, NIMH:MH P30 MH62512-01
Keywords: Anti-HIV Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, California, Central Nervous System Stimulants, Comorbidity, Comparative Study, Female, HIV Seropositivity, HIV-1, Humans, Male, Methamphetamine, Middle Aged, RNA, Viral, Research Support, U.S. Gov''t, P.H.S., Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, Viral Load, Virus Replication

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